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Some Pronunciation Rules for English Words


I. How "Y" is pronounced in an English word.

"Y" is pronounced either as [ai] or [i:].

1. In a one-syllable word, "y" is pronounced as [ai].

my by fly shy try cry
fry sky

2. In a two-syllable word, "y" is pronounced as [i:].

party puppy candy bunny funny pony
turkey happy cherry tiny penny city
baby


II. How "C" is pronounced in an English word.

"C" is pronounced either as [s] or [k].
city country cider circle

1. When "C" is followed by "E" or "Y," it is pronounced [c].

cent cell cellar center ice
Cycle cyclone cypress

2. When "C" is followed by "o", "u" "a," it is pronounced as [k].

country cold
cup cut curb
can cat cap
couple computer

The city has cement.
The country has corn.
We cycle in the city and drive our car in the country.


III. How "G" is pronounced in an English word.

1. When "G" is followed by "E," "I," or "Y," it is pronounced as [ʤ]
gem giant gym george

2. When "G" is followed by "U," or "A," it is pronounced as [Ʌ], or [ӕ].
gum gun gap gas garden

Gorgeous George
Wagon danger strangle stranger


IV. Pronunciation of vowel letters.

1. Long "a" and short "a"

e.g. cap - cape

-at cat bat hat rat fat sat
-ad sad had bad mad
-ag bag wag rag tag
-an can fan ran pan
-am ram ham jam yam
-ap map nap tap

If "E" is at the end of the word, "A" is pronounced as a long vowel.
gate take rake base race face wave cage

ending in "r"
car jar tar far

2. Long "i" and short "i"

-id lid kid did bid
-ig pig rig big dig wig
-in pin tin bin fin win
-ip lip rip dip hip tip
-it hit sit pit fit kit

If "E" is at the end of the word, "I" is pronounced as a long vowel.
kite bike vine ride dime

3. Long "o" and short "o"

-og dog log fog jog hog
-op pop hop top mop
-ot hot got pot not
-ob sob cob mob job

If "E" is at the end of the word, "O" is pronounced as a long vowel.
rose hope pole

4. Long "u" and short "u"


-ut nut cut hut rut up cup put cup pup
-ub cub tub cub tub
-us bus
-un bun fun sun run
-ug bug tug mug hug

If "E" is at the end of the word, "O" is pronounced as a long vowel.
tune cube cute

 



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