Academic Word List (A - D)

abandon    v.  go away from (a person or thing or place) not intending to return; forsake; desert

abstract    adj.  existing in thought or as an idea but not having a physical or practical existence

academy    n.  school for special training

access    n.  means of approaching or entering (a place); way in

accommodate    v.  provide lodging or room for

accompany    v.  walk or travel with (sb) as a companion or helper; escort

accumulate    v.  gradually get or gather together an increasing number or quantity of get (sth) in this way

accurate    adj.  free from error

achieve    v.  gain or reach (sth), usu by effort, skill, courage, etc

acknowledge    v.  accept the truth of admit (sth)

acquire    v.  gain (sth) by one's own ability, efforts or behaviour

adapt    v.  sth (for sth) make sth suitable for a new use, situation, etc; modify sth

adequate    adj.  satisfactory in quantity or quality; sufficient

adjacent    adj.  having a common endpoint or border  also immediately preceding or following

adjust    v.  put (sth) into the correct order or position; arrange

administrate    v.  to administer

adult    adj.  grown to full size or strength

advocate    v.  speak publicly in favour of (sth); recommend; support

affect    v.  have an influence on (sb/sth); produce an effect on

aggregate    v.  sb (fml ) be formed or bring sb into an assembled group or amount

aid    n.  help

albeit    conj although

allocate    v.  sth allot or assign sth (to sb/sth) for a special purpose

alter    v.  become different; change in character, position, size, shape, etc

alternative    adj.  available in place of sth else; other

ambiguous    adj.  having more than one possible meaning

amend    v.  correct an error in (sth); make minor improvements in; change slightly

analogy    n.  partial similarity between two things that are compared

analyse    v.  separate into its parts in order to study its nature or structure

annual    adj.  happening every year

anticipate    v.  expect

apparent    adj.  clearly seen or understood; obvious

append    v.  sth (fml ) attach or add sth (esp in writing)

appreciate    v.  understand and enjoy (sth); value highly

approach    v.  come near or nearer to in space or time

appropriate    adj.  suitable; right and proper

approximate    adj.  almost correct or exact but not completely so

arbitrary    adj.  based on personal opinion or impulse, not on reason

area    n.  extent or measurement of a surface

aspect    n.  particular part or feature of sth being considered

assemble    v.  come together; collect

assess    v.  sth decide or fix the amount of sth

assign    v.  sth to sb give sth to sb as a share of work to be done or of things to be used

assist    v.  in/with sth; (sb) in doing sth (fml ) help

assume    v.  accept as true before there is proof

assure    v.  tell (sb) positively or confidently

attach    v.  sth fasten or join sth (to sth)

attain    v.  succeed in getting (sth); achieve

attitude    n.  way of thinking or behaving

attribute    v.  sth to sb/sth regard sth as belonging to, caused by or produced by sb/sth

author    n.  writer of a book, play, etc

authority    n.  power to give orders and make others obey

automate    v.  cause to operate by automation

available    adj.  that can be used or obtained

aware    adj.  of sb/sth; that... having knowledge or realization of sb/sth

behalf    n.  on behalf of sb/on sb's behalf; US in behalf of sb/in sb's behalf as the representative of or spokesman for sb; in the interest of sb

benefit    n.  profit; gain; future good (used esp with the vs and preps shown)

bias    n.  opinion or feeling that strongly favours one side in an argument or one item in a group or series; predisposition; prejudice

bond    n.  written agreement or promise that has legal force; covenant

brief    adj.  lasting only a short time; short

bulk    n.  size, quantity or volume, esp when great

capable    adj.  having ability; able; competent

capacity    n.  ability to hold or contain sth

category    n.  class or group of things in a complete system of grouping

cease    v.  come or bring (sth) to an end; stop

challenge    n.  (to do sth) invitation or call (to sb) to take part in a game, contest, fight etc to prove who is better, stronger, more able, etc

channel    n.  sunken bed of a river, stream or canal

chapter    n.  (usu numbered) division of a book

chart    n.  detailed map used to help navigation at sea, showing coasts, rocks, the depth of the sea, etc

chemical    adj.  of or relating to chemistry

circumstance    n.  condition or fact connected with an event or action

cite    v.  commend

civil    adj.  of or relating to the citizens of a country

clarify    v.  (cause sth to) become clear or easier to understand

classic    adj.  having a high quality that is recognized and unquestioned; of lasting value and importance

clause    n.  group of words that includes a subject1(4a) and a verb, forming a sentence or part of a sentence

code    n.  (system of) words, letters, symbols, etc that represent others, used for secret messages or for presenting or recording information briefly

coherent    adj.  connected logically or consistent; easy to understand; clear

coincide    v.  (of events) occur at the same time or occupy the same period of time as sth else

collapse    v.  fall down or in suddenly

colleague    n.  person with whom one works, esp in a profession or business

commence    v.  begin (sth); start

comment    n.  written or spoken remark giving an opinion on, explaining or criticizing (an event, a person, a situation, etc)

commission    n.  action, task or piece of work given to sb to do

commit    v.  do (sth illegal, wrong or foolish)

commodity    n.  thing bought in a shop and put to use, esp in the home

communicate    v.  sth make sth known; convey sth

community    n.  the community the people living in one place, district or country, considered as a whole

compatible    adj.  (of people, ideas, arguments, principles, etc) suited; that can exist together

compensate    v.  for sth give (sb) sth good to balance or lessen the bad effect of damage, loss, injury, etc.

compile    v.  sth (for/from sth) collect (information) and arrange it in a book, list, report, etc

complement    n.  thing that goes well or suitably with sth else, or makes it complete

complex    adj.  made up of (usu several) closely connected parts

component    n.  any of the parts of which sth is made

compound    n.  thing made up of two or more separate things combined together

comprehensive    adj.  that includes everything

comprise    v.  have as parts or members; be made up of

compute    v.  sth calculate sth with a computer

conceive    v.  become pregnant

concentrate    v.  (sth) (on sth/doing sth) focus (one's attention, effort, etc) exclusively and intensely on sth, not thinking about other less important things

concept    n.  idea underlying sth; general notion

conclude    v.  (with sth) (usu fml ) come or bring (sth) to an end

concurrent    adj.  existing, happening or done at the same time

conduct    n.  person's behaviour

confer    v.  (with sb) (on/about sth) have discussions (esp in order to exchange opinions or get advice)

confine    v.  sb/sth keep (a person or an animal) in a restricted space

confirm    v.  provide evidence for the truth or correctness of (a report, an opinion, etc); establish the truth of

conflict    n.  struggle; fight

conform    v.  keep to or comply with (generally accepted rules, standards, etc)

consent    v.  give agreement or permission

consequent    adj.  (fml ) following sth as a result or an effect

considerable    adj.  great in amount or size

consist    v.  consist of sth be composed or made up of sth

constant    adj.  going on all the time; happening again and again

constitute    v.  (fml ) make up or form (a whole); be the components of

constrain    v.  make (sb) do sth by strong (moral) persuasion or by force

construct    v.  build (sth); put or fit together; form

consult    v.  sb/sth go to (a person, book, etc) for information, advice, etc

consume    v.  use (sth) up

contact    n.  state of touching (used esp with the vs shown)

contemporary    adj.  of the time or period being referred to; belonging to the same time

context    writings preceding and following passage quoted

contract    n.  (for sth/to do sth) legally binding agreement, usu in writing

contradict    v.  say sth that conflicts with by (sb), suggesting that the person is mistaken or not telling the truth

contrary    adj.  opposite in nature, tendency or direction

contrast    v.  A and/with B compare so that differences are made clear

contribute    v.  (to/towards sth) give one's share of (money, help, advice, etc) to help a joint cause

controversy    n.  public discussion or argument, often rather angry, about sth which many people disagree with

convene    v.  summon to come together; arrange (a meeting, etc)

converse    v.  (about sth); (together) (fml ) talk

convert    v.  (sth) (from sth) (into/to sth) change (sth) from one form or use to another

convince    v.  sb make sb feel certain; cause sb to realize

cooperate    v.  work or act together

coordinate    vt.  to organize or integrate (diverse elements) in a harmonious operation

core    n.  centre of such fruits as the apple and pear, containing the seeds

corporate    adj.  of or shared by all the members of a group; collective

correspond    v.  be in agreement; not contradict sth or each other

couple    n.  two people or things that are seen together or associated, esp a man and woman together

create    v.  cause to exist; make (sth new or original)

credit    n.  permission to delay payment for goods and services until after they have been received; system of paying in this way

criteria    n.  (pl of criterion) standard by which sth is judged

crucial    adj.  very important; decisive

culture    n.  refined understanding and appreciation of art, literature, etc

currency    n.  money system in use in a country

cycle    n.  series of events that are regularly repeated in the same order

data    n.  facts or information used in deciding or discussing sth

debate    n.  formal argument or discussion of a question, eg at a public meeting or in Parliament, with two or more opposing speakers, and often ending in a vote

decade    n.  period of ten years

decline    v.  say `no' to (sth); refuse (sth offered), usu politely

deduce    v.  sth arrive at (facts, a theory, etc) by reasoning; infer sth

define    v.  sth state precisely the meaning of (eg words)

definite    adj. clear; not doubtful

demonstrate    v.  sth (to sb) show sth clearly by giving proof or evidence

denote    v.  be the name, sign or symbol of (sth); refer to

deny    v.  say that (sth) is not true

depress    v.  make sad and without enthusiasm

derive    v.  sth from sth obtain sth from sth; get sth from sth

design    n.  (for sth) drawing or outline from which sth may be made

despite    prep.  without being affected by

detect    v.  discover or recognize that (sth) is present

deviate    v.  from sth stop following

device    n.  thing made or adapted for a special purpose

devote    v.  oneself/sth to sb/sth give to sb/sth; dedicate  ;

differentiat    v.  between A and B; A (from B) see or show (two things) to be different;

dimension    n.  measurement of any sort

diminish    v.  become smaller or less; decrease

discrete    adj.  separate; distinct

discriminate    v.  A from B see or make a difference (between two things)

displace    v.  move from the usual or correct place

display    v.  sth  put sth on show

dispose    v.  place(sb/sth) in a suitable way; arrange

distinct    adj.  easily heard, seen, felt or understood; definite

distort    v.  pull or twist out of its usual shape

distribute    v.  sth separate sth into parts and give a share to each person or thing

diverse    adj.  of different kinds; varied

document    n.  paper, form, book, etc giving information about sth, evidence or proof of sth

domain    n.  lands owned or ruled by a nobleman, government, etc

domestic    adj.  of the home, household or family

dominate    v.  have control of or a very strong influence on (people, events, etc)

draft    n.  rough preliminary written version of sth

drama    n.  play for the theatre, radio or TV

duration    n.  time during which sth lasts or continues

dynamic    adj.  of power or forces that produce movement