Academic Word List (P - W)

panel    n.  separate, usu rectangular, part of the surface of a door, wall, ceiling, etc, usu raised above or sunk below the surrounding area

paradigm    n.  set of all the different forms of a word

paragraph    n.  distinct section of a written or printed text, usu consisting of several sentences dealing with a single theme and starting on a new line

parallel    adj.  (of two or more lines) having the same distance between each other at every point

parameter    n.  quantity that does not vary in a particular case but does vary in other cases

participate    v.  take part or become involved (in an activity)

partner    n.  person who takes part in an activity with another or others, esp one of several owners of a business

passive    adj.  not active; submissive

perceive    v.  become aware of (sb/sth); notice; observe

period    n.  length or portion of time

persist    v.  continue to do sth, esp in an obstinate and determined way and in spite of opposition, argument or failure

perspective    n.  art of drawing solid objects on a flat surface so as to give the right impression of their height, width, depth and position in relation to each other

phase    n.  stage in a process of change or development

phenomenon    n.  fact or occurrence, esp in nature or society, that can be perceived by the senses

philosophy    n.  search for knowledge and understanding of the nature and meaning of the universe and of human life

physical    adj.  of or concerning material things

plus    prep.  with the addition of

policy    n.  plan of action, statement of ideals, etc proposed or adopted by a government, political party, business, etc

portion    n.  part or share into which sth is divided

pose    v.  (for sb) sit or stand in a particular position in order to be painted, drawn or photographed

positive    adj.  with no possibility of doubt; clear and definite

potential    adj.  that can or may come into existence; possible

practitioner    n.  person who practises a skill or an art

precede    v.  come or go before in time, order, rank, etc

precise    adj.  stated clearly andaccurately

predict    v.  say in advance that will happen; forecast

predominant    adj.  having more power or influence than others

preliminary    adj.  coming before a more important action or event; preparatory

presume    v.  suppose to be true; take (sth) for granted

previous    adj.  coming before in time or order

primary    adj.  earliest in time or order of development

prime    adj.  most important; chief; fundamental

principal    adj.  first in rank or importance; chief; main

principle    n.  basic general truth that underlies sth

prior    adj.  coming before in time, order or importance

priority    n.  (state of) being more important (in rank)

proceed    v.  (to sth) go to a further or the next stage; go on

process    n.  series of actions or operations performed in order to do, make or achieve sth

professional    adj.  of or belonging to a profession

prohibit    v.  sth/sb (from doing sth) forbid sth or sb from doing sth esp by laws, rules or regulations

project    n.  scheme or undertaking

promote    v.  to contribute to the growth or prosperity of:FURTHER

proportion    n.  comparative part or share of a whole; fraction

prospect    n.  (dated ) wide view of a landscape, etc

protocol    n.  system of rules governing formal occasions, eg meetings between governments, diplomats, etc; official etiquette

psychology    n.  science or study of the mind and how it functions

publication    n.  action of making a book or periodical, available to the public

publish    v.  prepare, have printed and distribute to the public (a book, periodical, etc)

purchase    n.  (action of) buying sth

pursue    v.  follow (sb/sth), esp in order to catch or kill; chase ,

qualitative    adj.  of or concerned with quality

quote    v.  (from sb/sth) repeat in speech or writing (words previously said or written by another person)

radical    adj.  of or from the root or base; fundamental

random    adj.  done, chosen, etc without method or conscious choice; haphazard

range    n.  connected line or row of mountains, hills, etc

ratio    n.  relation between two amounts determined by the number of times one contains the other

rational    adj.  able to reason

react    v.  behave differently or change as a result of sth; respond

recover    v.  sth find again (sth stolen, lost, etc); regain possession of sth

refine    v.  remove impurities from (sth); purify

regime    n.  method or system of government

region    n.  part of a surface or bodyor space with or without definite boundaries or characteristicfeatures

register    n.  official list or record of names, items, attendances, etc

regulate    v.  control or direct by means of rules and restrictions

reinforce    v.  make stronger by adding material, etc

reject    v.  refuse to accept

relax    v.  (make sth) become less tight, stiff, etc

release    v.  sb/sth (from sth) allow (a person or an animal) to go; set free or liberate sb/sth ;

relevant    adj.  (to sth/sb)connected with what is being discussed, what is happening,what is being done, etc

reluctance    Unwillingness.

rely    v.  (pt, pp relied)  on/upon sb/sth (to do sth) count or depend on sb/sth

remove    v.  sth/sb (from sth) take sth/sb away from one place to another

require    v.  depend on (sb/sth) for success, fulfilment, etc; need

research    n.  (on sb) careful study or investigation, esp in order to discover new facts or information

reside    v.  (in/at...) have one's home (in a certain place); live

resolve    v.  on/upon/against sth/doing sth decide firmly; determine

resource    n.  supply of raw materials, etc which bring a country, person, etc wealth

respond    v.  (with sth) give a verbal or written answer

restore    v.  sth (fml ) give back (sth lost, etc) to its owner

restrain    v.  sb/sthhold back sb/sth from movementor action; keep sb/sth under control or in check

restrict    v.  sb/sth (to sth) put a limit on sb/sth

retain    v.  keep (sth) in one's possession or use

reveal    v.  sth make (facts, etc) known

revenue    n.  income, esp the total annual income of the State from taxes, etc

reverse    adj.  contrary or opposite to what is expected

revise    v.  re-examine (sth), esp in order to correct or improve it

revolution    n.  overthrow of a system of government, esp by force

rigid    adj.  stiff; not bending or yielding

role    n.  actor's part in a play

route    n.  way taken or planned to get from one place to another

scenario    n.  written outline of a film, play, etc with details of the scenes and plot

schedule    n.  programme of work to be done or of planned events

scheme    n.  plan for doing or organizing sth

scope    n.  opportunity to do or achieve sth

section    n.  any of the parts into which sth may be or has been divided

sector    n.  part of a circle lying between two straight lines drawn from the centre to the circumference

secure    adj.  not feeling worry, doubt, etc

seek    v.  (after/for sth) look (for sth); try to find or obtain (sth)

select    v.  sb/sth choose sb/sth, esp as being the best or most suitable

sequence    n.  set of events, numbers, actions, etc with each following the one before continuously or in a particular order

series    n.  number of things, events, etc of a similar kind, esp. placed or occurring one after another

sex    n.  condition of being male or female; gender

shift    v.  (sth/sb/oneself) (from.../to...); (sth/sb/oneself) (about/around) (cause sth/sb/oneself to) change or move from one position or direction to another

significant    adj.  having a meaning, esp one that is immediately obvious

similar    adj.  resembling sb/sth but not the same; alike

simulate    v.  pretend to have or feel

site    n.  place where a building, town, etc was, is, or will be situated

so-called    adj.  (used to suggest that the words used to describe sb/sth are not appropriate )

sole    n.  flat sea-fish that is eaten as food

somewhat    adv.  to some degree; rather

source    n.  starting-point of a river

specific    adj.  detailed, precise and exact

specify    v. (esp fml ) state or name clearly and definitely (details, materials, etc)

sphere    n.  solid figure that is entirely round (ie with every point on the surface at an equal distance from the centre)

stable    adj.  firmly established or fixed; not likely to move or change

statistic    n.  item of information expressed in numbers

status    n.  person's social, legal or professional position or rank in relation to others

straightforward   adj.  honest and frank, without evasion

strategy    n.  planning and directing an operation in a war or campaign

stress    n.  mental or physical distress, difficult circumstances, etc

structure    n.  way in which sth is put together, organized, built, etc

style    n.  manner of writing or speaking, esp contrasted with what is actually written or said

submit    v.  (to sb/sth) accept the control, superior strength, etc (of sb/sth); yield (to sb/sth) ; ,

subordinate    adj.  (to sb) lower in rank or position

subsequent    adj.  later; following

subsidy    n.  money paid, esp by a government, to help an industry, to support the arts, to keep prices down, etc

substitute    n.  person or thing that replaces, acts for or serves as sb or sth else

successor    n.  person or thing that comes after and takes the place of (sb/sth)

sufficient    adj.  enough

sum    n.  arithmetical calculation

summary    n.  brief statement of themain points of sth

supplement    n.  thing added to sth else to improve or complete it

survey    v.  look carefully at all of (sth/sb), esp from a distance

survive    v.  (on sth) continue to live or exist

suspend    v.  sth (fml ) hang sth up

sustain    v.  bear (weight) without breaking or falling

symbol    n.  image, object, etc that suggests or refers to sth else; emblem

tape    n.  narrow strip of material used for tying, fastening or labelling things

target    n.  object or mark that a person tries to hit in shooting, etc; disc marked with concentric circles for this purpose in archery ; .

task    n.  piece of work that has to be done

team    n.  group of players forming one side in certain games and sports

technical    adj.  of or involving the mechanical arts and applied sciences

technique    n.  method of doing or performing sth, esp in the arts or sciences

technology    n.  scientificstudy and use of mechanical arts and applied sciences, eg engineering

temporary    adj.  lasting or meant to last for a limited time only; notpermanent

tense    adj.  stretched tightly; taut ;

terminate    v.  come to an end or bring (sth) to an end

text    n.  main written or printed part of a book or page

theme    n.  subject of a talk, a piece of writing or a person's thoughts; topic

theory    n.  set of reasoned ideas intended to explain facts or events

thereby    adv.  by that means

thesis    n. statement or theory put forward and supported by arguments

topic    n.  subject of a discussion, talk, programme, written work, etc

trace    n.  mark, track, sign, etc showing what has existed or happened

tradition    n.  passing of beliefs or customs from one generation to the next, esp without writing

transfer    v.  sth/sb (from...) (to...) move sth/sb from one place to another

transform    v.  sth/sb (into sth) completely change the appearance or character of sth/sb

transit    n.  process of going or being taken or transported from one place to another

transmit    v.  To send trough or across.

transport    v.  sth/sb (to...)  take sth/sb from one place to another in a vehicle

trend    n.  general tendency or direction

trigger    n.  lever that releases a spring, esp so as to fire a gun

ultimate    adj.  beyond which no other exists or is possible; last or final

undergo    v.  experience or endure (sth unpleasant or painful)

underlie    v.  lie or exist beneath (sth)

undertake    v.(fml)  (start to) make oneself responsible for (sth)

uniform    adj. not changing in form or character; unvarying

unify    v.  form (sth) into a single unit or make uniform

unique    adj.  being the only one of its type

utilise    vt.  (=utilize) to put to use, especially to find a profitable or practical use for

valid    adj.  legally effective because made or done with the correct formalities

vary    v.  (in sth) be different in size, volume, strength, etc

vehicle    n.  conveyance such as a car, lorry or cart used for transporting goods or passengers on land

version    n.  account of an event, etc from the point of view of one person

via    prep  by way of (sth); through

violate    v.  break or be contrary to

virtual    adj.  being or acting as what is described, but not accepted as such in name or officially

visible    adj.    that can be seen; in sight

vision    n.  power of seeing; sight

visual    adj.  concerned with or used in seeing

volume    n.  book, esp one of a matching set or a series

voluntary    adj.  acting,done or given willingly

welfare    n.  good health, happiness, prosperity, etc of a person or group

whereas    conj  taking into consideration the fact that ...

whereby    adv.  by which

widespread    v.;  extending over a wide area