Infinitives and Gerunds
Verbs that can be followed by both infinitives and gerunds:
The following verbs can be followed by both infinitives ad gerunds, but have different meanings
The doctor tried to save his life. (The doctor made an effort to save his life.)
He tried using another method. (He gave it a try to see if it would work.)
Remember to lock the door. (Please remember to do it.)
I remember locking the door.(I remember I did it in the past.)
I forgot to tell her about it. (I did not tell her.)
I forgot lending him the book. (I lent him the book, but I forgot about it.)
I regret to tell you that you were not selected for an interview. (I'm sorry I'm going to tell you something bad.)
I regret telling her about it. (I told her about it, but I regret it now.)
The house needs to be painted. (Passive infinitive)
The house needs painting. (Active in form, passive in meaning)
I used to get up early. (I always got up early in the past.)
be used to
I am used to getting up early. (I am in the habit of getting up early.)
I am used to get up early. (The sentence is wrong because "to" is a preposition.)
look forward to
I look forward to seeing you. (correct)
I look forward to see you. (incorrect)
He stopped smoking. (He gave up smoking.)
He Stopped to smoke. (He stopped in order to smoke.)
Verbs that can only be followed by infinitives:
Verbs that can only be followed by gerunds:
The following phrases are followed by verb+ing
end up -ing
in addition to -ing
It's no use -ing
It's worth -ing
can't help -ing
be busy -ing
give up -ing
have trouble / difficulty -ing
feel like -ing
object to -ing
spend (time) doing sth.
Verb + Object + Infinitive
advise sb. to do sth.
allow sb. to do sth.
cause sb. to do sth.
encourage sb. to do sth.
expect sb. to do sth.
force sb. to do sth.
invite sb. to do sth.
order sb. to do sth.
permit sb. to do sth.
persuade sb. to do sth.
requre sb. to do sth.
teach sb. to do sth.
tell sb. to do sth.
urge sb. to do sth.
let sb. do sth
make sb. do sth.
watch sb. do sth / doing sth.
see sb. do sth.
hear sb. do sth.
help sb. do sth / to do sth.
"To" is used when "make" is in the passive voice.
He made his roommate clean his room.
His roommate was made to clean the room.
Do not use "to" after these phrases
Forms of Infinitives and Gerunds
to cry (infinitive)
to have cried (the perfect infinitive)
to be crying (the continuous infinitive)
to have been crying (the perfect contiuous infinitive)
to be painted (the passive infinitive)
having cried (the perfect gerund)
having been crying (the perfect continuous gerund)
(the passive gerund)
ESL: English as a Second Language